Understanding deindividuation according to moghaddam

Le Bon introduced his crowd psychology theory in his publication The Crowd: Many laboratory studies tested the pre-diction that anonymity leads to disinhibition. But when it does occur, crowd historians have witnessed preciously little chaos and randomness.

Deindividuation and anti-normative behavior: For the in-group low-visibility condition part of the anti-hunting participants were taken to individual booths where they were not visible to others in the experiment. Rather, anonymity increases their responsiveness to the normative cues present in their immediate environment.

Deindividuation Deindividuation Definition Deindividuation theory was developed to explain the violence and irrationality of the crowd.

So if personal identity is salient, wearing Klan outfits may increase personal focus, and people will rely on their own individual norms to guide their behaviour. Even the reduction of self-awareness in more direct and invasive ways does not yield consistent evidence of Understanding deindividuation according to moghaddam.

According to Zimbardo, factors leading to a state of deindividuation include anonymity; shared, diffused, or abandoned responsibility; altered temporal perspective so that the individual focuses more on the here and now than on the past or present ; physiological arousal; sensory overload; novel or unstructured situations; and altered states of consciousness such as those brought about by the use of alcohol or drugs.

In some sense, this is a disturbing if unsurprising conclusion—it means that people are capable of committing the vilest atrocities willingly.


Deindividuation often occurs without face-to-face interaction and is a prevalent feature of the internet. How does a group of seemingly normal individuals become an unruly mob? Psychological Bulletin, In a group context, when attention is distributed outward in line with this model away from the self, the individual loses the ability to plan his actions rationally and substitutes planned behaviors with a heightened responsiveness to environmental cues.

In psychology, an archetype is a model of a person, personality, or behavior. This process leads to intensifying aggressive actions that can even reach the point of mutual destruction. The Individual and Society: Following that line of reasoning, some critics of traditional deindividuation theories argue that while group membership can have both prosocial and antisocial consequences, those consequences should not necessarily be attributed to a loss of individual selfhood.

Indeed, the effects of deindividuation can be rather inconsequential e. In contrast, the participants in the control condition wore normal clothes and name tags. Taking this new perspective, a large body of field research of crowds has noted that group norms inform collective action.

Collective behavior however atrocious can be under conscious control. In other ways, deindividuation theory did move away from Le Bon.


Thus, the effects of deindividuation are sometimes viewed as socially undesirable e. Alternative approaches suggest that crowd behavior is not due to a loss of identity but to a transition to a collective social identity.

Theories of Intergroup Relations:According to the deindividuation theory, this is because the individual feels that they can no longer be singled out and held personally responsible for behaviour.

The studies conducted by Zimbardo () and Milgram () have been examined and compared in this essay. Obedience is defined by Moghaddam () as: "changes in behaviour.

Deindividuation is defined by Moghaddam () as: “The loss of one’s sense of self identity as an individual person, associated with lower self awareness and.

According to Reicher and his colleagues, that position limits understanding of deindividuation phenomena. Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization, Reicher and his colleagues proposed that group membership does not automatically entail a loss of self.

deindividuation literature often implicates anonymity, there is debate as to what the role and the effects of anonymity are in group behavior and identity (Lea, Spears, and de Groot, ). According to deindividuation theory, the anonymity and excitement of the crowd make individuals lose a sense of individual identity.


As a result, crowd members cease to evaluate themselves, and they become irrational and irresponsible. People look to others for an understanding of the situation before acting. If others are just watching and appear calm, the individual may reassess the situation to not be an emergency.

In this way a person who would help is being discouraged from helping by the social cues.

Understanding deindividuation according to moghaddam
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